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Commoner, B, 1971. The Closing Circle. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, USA.

Gleick, P.H., editor. 1993. Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources. Oxford University Press, New York.

Noss, R.F. and A.Y. Cooperrider. 1994. Saving Nature's Legacy: Protecting and Restoring Biodiversity. Defenders of Wildlife. Island Press. Washington, D.C.

Wetzel, R.G. 2001. Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems, 3rd edition. Academic Press, London.

How Rivers Run

Aadland, L.P. 1993. Stream habitat types: Their fish assemblages and relationship to flow. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13:790-806.

Annear, T., I. Chisholm, H. Beecher, A. Locke, P. Aarestad, N. Burkhart, C. Coomer, C. Estes, J. Hunt, R. Jacobson, G. Jobsis, J. Kauffman, J. Marshall, K. Mayes, C. Stainaker, and R. Wentworth. 2002. Instream Flows for Riverine Resource Stewardship. Instream Flow Council, Cheyenne, WY.

Balogh, S.J., M.L. Meyer, and D.K. Johnson, 1998. Transport of mercury in three contrasting river basins. Environmental Science & Technology 32:456-462.

Balogh, S.J., D.R. Engstrom, J.E. Almendinger, M.L. Meyer, and D.K. Johnson. 1999. History of mercury loading in the Upper Mississippi River reconstructed from sediments of Lake Pepin. Environmental Science & Technology 33: 3297-3302.

Benke, A.C. 2001. Importance of flood regime to invertebrate habitat in an unregulated river-floodplain ecosystem. Journal of North American Benthological Society 20(2):225-240.

Benyus, J. M. 1989. Northwoods Wildlife: A Watcher's Guide to Habitats. NorthWord Press, Minocqua, Wisconsin.

Center for Watershed Protection. 2003. Impacts of Impervious Cover on Aquatic Systems. Order from web site:

Colburn, T., and C. Clement, editors. 1992. Chemically-induced alterations in sexual and functional development: the wildlife/human connection. Princeton Scientific, Princeton, New Jersey. USA.

Colburn, T. and K. Thayer. 2000. Aquatic ecosystems: Harbingers of endocrine disruption. Ecological Applications 10(4):949-957.

Dunne, T. and L.B. Leopold. 1978. Water in Environmental Planning. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Enblom, J. 1999. Mississippi River - Navigation Pool 2: Water quality issues and perspectives. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, white paper, St. Paul.

Engstrom, D. R. and J. E. Almendinger. 2000. Historical changes in sediment and phosphorus loading to the Upper Mississippi River: Mass-balance reconstructions from the sediments of Lake Pepin. Final Research Report prepared for the Metropolitan Council Environmental Services. St. Croix Watershed Research Station, Science Museum of Minnesota, Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota.

Environment Canada. 2001. Priority Substances List Assessment Report: Road Salts. Minister of Public Works and Government Services.

Fitch, L. and N. Ambrose. 2003. Riparian areas: a user's guide to health. Lethbridge, Alberta: Cows and fish program.

Folmar, L.C., N.D. Denslow, V. Rao, M. Chow, et al. 1996. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant. Environmental Health Perspectives 104(10):1096-1101.

Folmar, L.C., N. D. Denslow, K. Kroll, E.F. Orlando, J. Enblom, J. Marcino, C. Metcalfe, and L.J. Guillette, Jr. 2001. Altered serum sex steroids and vitellogenin induction in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) collected near a metropolitan sewage treatment plant. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40:392-398.

Fremling, C. R. and D. K. Johnson. 1990. Recurrence of Hexagenia mayflies demonstrates improved water quality in pool 2 and Lake Pepin, Upper Mississippi River. Pages 243-248 in I. C. Campbell, editor. Mayflies and Stoneflies. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Garry, V.F., D. Schreinemachers, M.E. Harkins, and J. Griffith. 1996. Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota. Environmental Health Perspectives 104(4):394-99.

Garry, V.F., M.E. Harkins, L.L. Erickson, L.K. Long-Simpson, S.E. Holland, and B.L. Burroughs. 2002a. Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA. Environmental Health Perspectives 110, supplement 3:441-449.

Garry, V.F., M. Harkins, A. Lyubimov, L. Erickson, and L. Long. 2002b. Reproductive outcomes in the women of the Red River Valley of the North. I. The spouses of pesticide applicators: pregnancy loss, age at menarche, and exposures to pesticides. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A.65:769-786

Gleick, P.with W.C.G. Burns, E.L. Chalecki, M.Cohen, K.K.Cushing, A.S. Mann, R. Reyes, G.H. Wolff, and A.K. Wong. 2002. The World's Water: 2002-2003, The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Island Press. Washington, D. C.

Green, J.C. 1995. Birds and Forests: A Management and Conservation Guide. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. St. Paul.

Harden, B. 1996. A River Lost: The Life and Death of the Columbia. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Harries, J.E., D.A. Sheahan, S. Jobling, P. Matthiessen, P. Neall, E.J. Routledge, R. Rycroft, J.P. Sumpter, and T. Tylor. 1996. A survey of estrogenic activity in United Kingdom inland waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15 (11):1993-2002.

Hatch, J.T., G.L. Phillips and K.P. Schmidt. The Fishes of Minnesota. In preparation. Expected publication date 2004.

Hawkinson, B. and G. Grunwald. 1979. Observation of a Wintertime Concentration of Catfish in the Mississippi River. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Section of Fisheries, Investigational Report No. 365.

Hayes, T., K. Haston, M. Tsui, A. Hoang, C. Haeffele, and A. Vonk. 2002. Herbicides:Feminization of male frogs in the wild. Nature 419:895-896 (31 October 2002).

Hayes, T., K. Haston, M. Tsui, A. Hoang, C. Haeffele, and A. Vonk. 2003. Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American frogs (Rana pipiens): Laboratory and field evidence. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(4):568-575.

Henderson, C., A.L. Lambrecht and others. 1997. Traveler's Guide to Wildlife in Minnesota, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Nongame Wildlife Program. St. Paul, Minnesota.

Hynes, H.B. 1975. The stream and its valley. Verhandlungen der internationalen vereinigung fur theoretische und angewandte. Limnologie 19:1-15.

James, W.F., J.W. Barko, and H.L. Eakin. 2000. Synthesis of physphorus/seston fluxes and phytoplankton dynamics in Lake Pepin (Upper Mississippi River), 1994-1996, Final Report. U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Eau Galle Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Spring Valley, Wisconsin.

Johnson, D.K. and P.W. Assen. 1989. The metropolitan wastewater treatment plant and the Mississippi River: 50 years of improving water quality. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 55(1):134-138.

Johnson, S. 1994. Recreational boating impact investigations - Upper Mississippi River System, Pool 4, Red wing, Minnesota. Report by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Lake City, Minnesota, for the National Biological Survey, Environmental Management Technical Center, Onalaska, Wisconsin. EMTC 94-S004.

Johnson, S. 1997. Mississippi River shoreline surveys near Red Wing. Interoffice memorandum and attachment graphs to Jim Cooper and Steve Johnson, Division of Waters, dated 15 October. Updated survey information to supplement Recreational boating impact investigations report (Johnson 1994, cited above).

Junk, W.J., P.B. Bayley, and R.E. Sparks. 1989. The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Pages 110-127 in D.P. Dodge, editor. Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium (LARS). Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 106.

Karr, J. R. and E. Chu. 1999. Restoring Life in Running Waters: Better Biological Monitoring. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Kling, G.W., K. Hayhoe, L.B. Johnson, J.J. Magnuson, S. Polasky, S.K. Robinson, B.J. Shuter, M.M. Wander, D.J. Wuebbles, D.R. Zak, R.L. Lindroth, S.C. Moser, and M.L. Wilson. 2003. Confronting climate change in the Great Lakes Region: Impacts on our communities and ecosystems. Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Massachusetts and Ecological Society of America, Washington, D.C.

Knutson, M.G., J.P. Hoover, and E.E. Klaas. 1996. The importance of floodplain forests in the conservation and management of neotropical migratory birds in the midwest. Pages 168-188 in F. R. Thompson, III, editor. Management of Midwestern Landscapes for the Conservation of Neotropical Migratory Birds. General Technical Report NC-187. USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. St. Paul, Minnesota.

Knutson, M.G. and E.E. Klaas. 1998. Floodplain forest loss and changes in forest community composition and structure in the Upper Mississippi River: A wildlife habitat at risk. Natural Areas Journal 18:138-150.

Lee, K.E., and J.P. Anderson. 1998. Water-Quality Assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Common Carp and Walleye Fillets. 1975-95: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4126.

Lee, K.E., V.S. Blazer, N.D. Denslow, R.M. Goldstein, and P.J. Talmage. 2000. Use of biological characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to indicate exposure to hormonally active agents in selected Minnesota streams: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4202.

Leopold, L.B. 1994. A View of the River. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Leopold, L.B., M.G. Wolman, and J.P. Miller. 1964. Fluvial processes in geomorphology. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, California.

Lin, N. and V.F. Garry. 2000. In vitro studies of cellular and molecular developmental toxicity of adjuvants, herbicides, and fungicides commonly used in Red River Valley, Minnesota. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 60:423-439.

MacBroom, J. G. 1998. The River Book: The Nature and Management of Streams in Glaciated Terranes. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, DEP Bulletin 28 Hartford, Connecticut

Maczka, C., S. Pang, D. Policansky and R. Wedge. 2000. Evaluating impacts of hormonally active agents in the environment. Environmental Science & Technology/News. March, Pages 136A-141A.

Morley, S.A. and J.R. Karr. 2002. Assessing and restoring the health of urban streams in the Puget Sound basin. Conservation Biology 16(6):1498-1509.

Nerbonne, B. and B. Vondracek. 2001. Effects of local land use on physical habitat, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish in the Whitewater River, Minnesota U.S.A . Environmental Management 28(1):87-99.

Niemela, S. and M. Feist. 2000. Index of biotic integrity (IBI) guidance for coolwater rivers and streams of the St. Croix River basin in Minnesota. Biological Monitoring Program, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul.

Nilsson, C. and K. Berggren. 2000. Alterations of riparian ecosystems caused by river regulation. BioScience 50:783-792.

Noble, M.G. 1979. The origins of Populus deltoides and Salix interior zones on point bars along the Minnesota River. American Midland Naturalist 102(1):59-67.

O'Shea, D.T. 2000. Water use and availability in Minnesota. Rivers 7(4):333-344

Oldfield, B. and J. J. Moriarty. 1994. Amphibians & Reptiles Native to Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC). 2002. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. U.S.A. web site:

Rosgen, D.L. 1994. A classification of natural rivers. Catena 22:169-199.

Rosgen, D.L. 1996. Applied River Morphology. Wildland Hydrology Books, Pagosa Springs, Colorado.

Ryan, J. C. and A.T. Durning. 1997. Stuff: The Secret Lives of Everyday Things. Northwest Environment Watch, Seattle, Washington.

Schmitt, C.J., D.E. Tillitt, V.S. Blazer, T.S. Gross, N.D. Denslow, T.M. Bartish, and B.S. Arnold. 2002. Project summary, discussion, and recommendations. Chapter 5, pp.171-235 in Schmitt, C.J., editor. Biomonitoring of environmental status and trends (BEST) program: environmental contaminants and their effects on fish in the Mississippi River basin. U.S. Geological Survey Biological Science Report. USGS/BRD/BSR-2002-0004. Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, Missouri.

Schreinemachers, D.M., J.P. Creason, and V.F. Garry. 1999. Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota. Environmental Health Perspectives 107(3):205-211.

Short, P. and T. Colborn. 1999. Pesticide use in the U. S. and policy implications: a focus on herbicides. Toxicology and Industrial Quality 15:240-275.

Stanford, J.A. and J.V. Ward. 1988. The hyporheic habitat of river ecosystems. Nature 335:64-66.

Steingraber, S. 2001. Having Faith: An Ecologist's Journey into Motherhood. Perseus Publishing, New York.

Steingraber, S. 1997. Living Downstream: A Scientist's Personal Investigation of Cancer and the Environment. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., New York.

Talmage, P.J., K.E. Lee, R.M. Goldstein, J.P. Anderson, and J.D. Fallon. 2000. Water quality, physical habitat, and fish-community conposition in streams in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. 1997-98: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-424.

Talmage, P.J., J.A. Perry, and R.M. Goldstein. 2002. Relation of instream habitat and physical conditions to fish communities of agricultural streams in the northern Midwest. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:825-833.

Tilman, D., D. Wedin, and J. Knops. 1996. Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems. Nature 379:718-720.

Tilman, D., J. Knops, D. Wedin, P. Reich, M. Ritchie and E. Siemann. 1997. The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. Science 277:1300-1302.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. The quality of our nation's water: A summary of the 1988 national water quality inventory. EPA Report 840-B-92-002. Washington, D.C.

Vannote, R.L., G.W. Minshall, K.W. Cummins, J.R. Sedell, and C.E. Cushing. 1980. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37:130-137.

Ward, J.V. and J.A. Stanford. 1995. Ecological connectivity in alluvial river ecosystems and its disruption by flow regulation. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 11(1):105-119.

Waters, T.F. 1977. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Weiner, J.G., R.V. Anderson, and D.R. McConville, editors. 1984. Contaminants in the Upper Mississippi River: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Mississippi River Research Consortium. Butterworth Publishers, Boston, Massachusetts.

Waters, T.F. 2000. Wildstream: A Natural History of the Free Flowing River. Riparian Press. St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winter, T.C., J.W. Harvey, O.L. Franke and W.M. Alley. 1998. Ground water and surface water: A single resource. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1139. Denver, Colorado.

Web sites:
Dr. Richard Ladle's lecture course on riverine biomonitoring, described at (no longer available).

River Stories

Abraham, J. 2000. A River on the Move. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer, March-April issue.

Abraham, J. 2003. Backwater Revival. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer. May-June issue.

Breining, G. 1994. Is the Mississippi Dying? The Minnesota Volunteer. November-December issue.

Breining, G. 1999. The Valley Below, Minnesota Monthly.

Bylander, C. B. 1999. Best Potato Practices. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer, May-June issue.

DeVore, B. 2001. The Dead Zone Puzzle. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer. July-August issue.

Dickson, T. 2000. Sturgeon Come Surgin' Back. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer. July-August issue.

Glennon, R. 2002. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Goolsby, D. A., and W.A. Battaglin. 2000. Nitrogen in the Mississippi Basin: Estimating Sources and Predicting Flux to the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 135-00, December.

Kelner, D. 2002. New Mussels in Old Miss'. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer. September-October issue.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fisheries. March 2002. Restoration of extirpated lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the Red River of the North watershed.

O'Link, E. 2001. Running on Empty. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer, May - June issue.

Randall, G.W., D.R. Huggins, M.P. Russelle, D.J. Fuchs, W.W. Nelson, and J.L. Anderson. 1997. Nitrate losses through subsurface tile drainage in Conservation Reserve Program, alfalfa, and row crop systems. Journal of Environmental Quality 26:1240-1247.

Value Of A River

Abramovitz, J.N. 1997. Putting a value on nature's "free" services. World Watch 11(1):10-19.

Benyus, J.M. 1997. Biomimicry: innovation inspired by nature. William Morrow and Company, Inc. New York.

Brown, L.R., G. Gardner, and B. Halweil. 1998. Beyond Malthus: Sixteen Dimensions of the Population Problem. Worldwatch Paper 143. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C.

Constanza, R., R. D'Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O'Neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260.

Daily, G.C. and K. Ellison. 2002. The New Economy of Nature: The Quest to Make Conservation Profitable. Island Press. Washington, D. C

Daily, G.C., editor. 1997. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press. Washington, D. C.

Daily, G.C., S. Alexander, P.R. Ehrlich, L. Goulder, J. Lubchenco, P.A. Matson, H.A. Mooney, S. Postel, S.H. Schneider, D. Tilman, and G.M. Woodwell. 1997. Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems. Issues in Ecology, Issue Number 2. Ecological Society of America. Washington, D.C.

Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations. 1979. Yield Response to Water (Rome 1979); "Water Scarcity as a Key Factor Behind Global Food Insecurity: Round Table Discussion," Ambio, March 1998. quoted p. 17 in "Beyond Malthus: Sixteen Dimensions of the Population Problem" by L.R. Brown et al., 1998.

Heal, G.M. 2000. Nature and the Marketplace: Capturing the Value of Ecosystem Services. Island Press. Washington, D.C.

Janzen, D.H. 2000. Wildland as gardens. National Parks Magazine 74(11-12):50-51.

Janzen, D.H. 2001. Lumpy integration of tropical wild biodiversity with its society. in "A New Century of Biology", Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Joyce, C. 1994. "From Osa to New Jersey", ch. 7 in Earthly Goods: Medicine-Hunting in the Rainforest. Little, Brown and Company.

Levin, S.A. editor. 1996. Forum: Economic growth and environmental quality. Ecological Applications 6(1):12-32.

Power, T. M. 1996. Lost Landscapes and Failed Economies: The Search for a Value of Place. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Steingraber, S. 1997. Living Downstream: A Scientist's Personal Investigation of Cancer and the Environment. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., New York

What We Can Do

Orr, D. 2003. Comments from keynote presentation delivered at the University of Minnesota Sustainable Design Forum, Bell Museum of Natural History auditorium 23 April.

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