"An alternative technique is to use natural materials as a natural river bend would tend to have. And this can be done with woody debris. Normally you would have a root wad or willow posts that can be installed in the bank and provide roughness elements that actually slow the velocities down and protect it in that way. Ideally, you want living material on this outside bend, things like willow, so that if a flood damages the roots, it regenerates and repairs itself so you're not having to go back in there and do anything. And instead of having these accelerating velocities, we're dissipating a lot of energy by the resistance of the root and wood material on this outside bend."