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Introduction How Rivers Run Stories Value Of A River What We Can Do
Life of a River - Biology
Consequences (pg 2 of 3)

When amphibians and reptiles are overwintering in shallow bays, water levels that are artificially lowered can subject the dormant animals to mortality due to freezing. Wave action from barges and boats can erode and expose sandy shores and island habitats of nesting turtles and foraging shorebirds. Mussels can also be negatively impacted when water levels change abruptly. The image at left shows a mussel trying to reach water after flows at Orwell dam were turned off for maintenance purposes.

Many U.S. fish species are on the decline. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service lists 115 fish species as endangered or threatened in the United States (to see listing, go online to ecos.fws.gov.

The ghost shiner is considered an extirpated species in Minnesota because it hasn't been seen since the 1950's. It occurred in the Mississippi River downstream from the Twin Cities prior to lock and dam construction (Hatch et al., in preparation). It was named for its transparent skin, which allowed one to see the internal organs of the fish, but now "ghost shiner" takes on a different meaning.

Sandra Steingraber
Hear Sandra Steingraber
Natural historian of ghosts

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Introduction
Flow
Shape
Connections
Quality
Life
Description
Terrestrial plants
Terrestrial animals
Life cycles
Corridors
Refuges
Aquatic habitats
Adaptations
Continuum concept
Relationships
Consequences
Stories
Summary
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